Figure 1. The size and shape of the reflector determines the performance of these antennas to a large extent. This grid azimuth is intended to be used with state plane coordinate geometry computations in the same manner as the plane azimuth described earlier. This sector was formed with a vertical array of ten dipoles strategically placed in front of a shaped reflector. Often antennas can simply be physically rotated to make them horizontally or vertically polarized, although this may not always be the best choice. Circularly polarized antennas can radiate electromagnetic waves that spin clockwise or counter-clockwise depending on the structure. Omnidirectional antennas like dipoles and collinear arrays were shown to radiate their power out in all directions in a plane, away from the vertical axis of the antenna. Their directional nature seems to be somewhat intuitive due to their common, tubular form factor. An azimuth is a special kind of geometric angle used chiefly in land navigation. The above diagrams (Figure 1 and Figure 2) represent two cuts of a three dimensional radiation pattern, one for Azimuth (horizontal) and one for Elevation (vertical). The elevation is the vertical angular distance between a celestial body (sun, moon) and the observer's local horizon or, also called, the observer’s local plane. This gives the viewer the ability to easily visualize how the antenna radiates in all directions as if the antenna was "aimed" or mounted already. As shown in Figures 4 and 5, the goal of a dipole or any omni is to radiate energy equally in all directions in a plane. Much can be learned about how an antenna performs from its patterns. This is a simple antenna that radiates its energy out toward the horizon (perpendicular to the antenna). Vertical section plane: Vetrical section azimuth: degrees Sectors are frequently deployed higher up in the air and may have side lobe and front-to-back ratio requirements associated with them. A Yagi antenna is formed by driving a simple antenna, typically a dipole or dipole-like antenna, and shaping the beam using a well-chosen series of non-driven elements whose length and spacing are tightly controlled. Elevation Plane Patterns of the 4 x 4 Patch Array in Polar and Rectangular Coordinates, Figure 11. So the azimuth plane pattern is a circle, passing through the peak gain at all angles, shown in Figure 4c. A normalized pattern is especially useful when the sidelobe levels and the depth of the nulls are of interest since it's easier to read their respective levels. However, since many receivers are often equipped with "rabbit ears" type antennas (which are usually extended vertically resulting in vertical polarization), the vertically polarized azimuth pattern can be used to compute the coverage area for this receiver configuration. Some sectors are specifically designed to combat this problem with "null fill." This particular antenna was designed to be Omnidirectional with a peak gain at 2.4 GHz. Azimuth is the most common military method to express direction. These lobes are about 14 dB down from the peak of the main lobes. projection level = 1.5(window height)+ 0.7m = 1.7m. For this reason, it doesn't matter how the patterns are presented. Azimuth (°deg) A B : The direction from serving cell pointing to target location complaint for building . This effectively tilts the elevation plane pattern down 5 degrees as shown. That is, the gain of the antenna 180 degrees behind the peak is 14 dB lower than the peak gain. 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